Best Syllogism Tutorial | Syllogism Concepts Explained Using Examples and Real Questions
Contributed By Shuchi 2 years ago 3301 Views
This Topic is one of the easiest topic if concepts are clear and requires less time compared to other topics. So here we will try to cover all types of questions asked from syllogism In Banking & other competitive exams.
Number of Questions from Syllogism asked in Banking Exams: 5
Allotted Marks: 1 for each Question
Ideal time taken to find out Solutions: 5 minutes Maximum.
For better understanding we will solve problems of syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram. Before getting into topic directly we will try to understand some basic concepts related to it.
1.All dogs are Cats. (All A's are B's)
So it can be drawn like this:
So there are two ways to draw above given statement. But generally we draw diagram (ii).
2. Some Cats are Dogs (Some A's are B's)
Here these two Venn Diagrams are possible for one statement but we will prefer to draw (i) because we will try minimum overlapping. Drawing Diagram using this technique is known as Minimum Overlapping technique.
3. Some dogs are not cats. (Some A's are not B's)
These two diagrams represent the given statement however we will always draw the (i) diagram. Diagram(ii) is just to develop the sense that highlighted area represents the statement too but we will avoid drawing it as it may add complexities.
4. No cat is dog/ No dog is cat/ All dog are not cat. (No A's is B's, No B's are A's, All A's are not B's)
So this single diagram may be drawn for all three types above given statements.
5.(A) All Dogs are cats. (B) No rat is dog. (All A's are B's, No C's are A's)
In (iii) & (iv)Diagram, it’s a case of possibility & we can think of every possible diagram before answering as long as it does not contradict the given statement. But you are not supposed to draw all the possible diagrams in Exam hall.
Here few points are needed to keep in mind:
- You need not draw every possible diagram in exam. You should save your precious time in exam hall.
- Try to draw minimum diagrams, imagine diagrams & try to solve mentally as it will boost up your speed.
- Possibility arises only in negative statement(like second statement given in above Example).
- We will draw Venn Diagram using Minimum Overlapping Technique.
Minimum Overlapping Technique: As it’s name suggest, we will cover only that area through circle which is given in statement for rest we will cover as minimum as possible. To understand see this Example
6. (A)Some jugs are glasses (B)All glasses are plates.
Now we will try to understand the concepts through examples.
7 .Statements (A) No car is van (B) All jeeps are van (C) Some bikes are jeeps.
Conclusions(i)No jeep is a car (ii)Atleast some bike are van.
From Diagram it is clear that (i) & (ii) both follow.
Note: Word ‘Atleast’ must be always omitted.
8.Statements (A) Some coolers are fans (B) Some fans are ac.
Conclusion (i) Some ac are not fans (ii) Some ac being coolers is a possibility
It is very clear from the diagram that (i) does not follow but (ii) follows.
9. Statements: (A) All dogs are cat (B)No rat is dog.
Conclusions: (i) No cat is rat. (ii) Some cats are rats.
So here we will think about all possible diagrams,Conclusion (i) is possible from diagram (iv) (ii) is also possible from diagram (iii)
Again If Conclusion(i)follows then (ii) will never so Either (i) or (ii) follows.
10. Statements: (A) Some movies are films (B) No film is a show (C) All show are pictures
Conclusions: (i) Atleast some pictures are films (ii) No show is a movie (iii) No pictures are films.
In negative conclusions we extend possibilities & think of all possible cases without violating statements’ conditions so there is one possible case
So from diagram we can clearly answer either (i) or (iii) follows.
11. Statement: (A) Some bikes are cars (B) All ships are trains (C) Atleast some buses are cars
(D)No buses are ships.
Conclusions (i) All cars are trains (ii) Some trains are ships (iii) Some buses are bikes (iv) Some cars are buses.
From diagram we can answer only (ii) & (iv) follows.
12. Statements: (A) Some cakes are roses (B) All roses are Trucks (C) No truck is brick
(D) Atleast some brick are hotels.
Conclusions: (i) Some trucks are cakes (ii) Some bricks are roses (iii) All cakes are trucks (iv)
Some hotels are cakes.
Only (i) follows.
13. Statements: (A) All tigers are dogs (B) Some tigers are cats (C) All cats are lions (D) All cows are lions
Conclusions: (i) Some dogs are lions (ii) Some cows are dogs (iii) Some lions are tigers (iv) All cats are dogs.
So here from diagram we can answer only (i) & (iii) follow.
Now we will learn to deal Negative Statements & Conclusions as well
14. Statements: (A) Some girls are intelligent (B) All brave are clever (C) All intelligent are beautiful (D) No beautiful is brave.
Conclusions: (i) Some beautiful are girls (ii) Some clever are intelligent (iii) No beautiful is clever (iv) No girl is clever.
Conclusion (i) follows only as it is visible from diagram
For better understanding, one this case is also possible as here no given Statements’ condition are violating)
So only (i) follows.
Note: You are not advised to draw all possible diagrams, You only just need to imagine all possible diagrams & answer accordingly.
15. Statements: (A) Atleast some trams are autos (B) All trams are cycles (C) All cycles are trucks (D) No trains is cycle.
Conclusions: (i) Some trucks are autos (ii) No tram is train (iii) No train is auto (iv) Some trains are not trucks.
Conclusion (i) & (ii) follows.(Think of (iii) & (iv),they do not follow as they are negative so we will extend the possible diagrams mentally without violating statements)
Now we will try to grasp the Concept of Possibilities related Conclusions
16. Statements: (A) All cats are rats (B) Some jets are mats (C) No rat is jet (D) All mats are fish.
Conclusions: (i) No jet is cat (ii) No cat is mat (iii) some cat being fish is a possibility (iv) All rats being mat is a possibility.
Conclusion (i),(iii) & (iv) follows,(ii) does not follow because it’s a negative conclusion. So, we will extend possibilities, then it may be possible because nothing is said about this in the statement.
17.Statements: (A) All locks are doors (B) All doors are bags (C) No tickets are doors (D) All tickets are keys.
Conclusions: (i) Some locks are not tickets (ii) All locks being key is a possibility (iii) All bags being key is a possibility (iv) All keys being bag is a possibility.
18. Statements: (A) All computers are CPUs (B) All keyboards are mouse (C) No mouse is computer (D) Some CDs are mouse.
Conclusions: (i) Some CDs are not CPU (ii) No computer is keyboard.
Only (ii) follows.
At last we will try to develop the technique to answers Either/Or Conclusions
19. Statements: (A) All computers are CPUs (B) All keyboards are mouse (C) No mouse is computer (D) Some CDs are mouse.
Conclusions: (i) Some CPUs are mouse (ii)No CPU is mouse
So from the above diagram we can see clearly if (i) follows then (ii) will never & vice versa so Either (i) Or (ii) follows.
We hope it will help you in all the ways to understand the concept of Syllogism. Keep practicing as much as you can so that you can solve all the questions asked from this topic in exam
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